Free full text jellyfish invertebrates animal research literature

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Free full text jellyfish invertebrates animal research literature

1. First description of the life cycle of the jellyfish Rhizostoma luteum (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae)

Abstract:

Jellyfish blooms are a significant environmental problem that is increasing and may be influenced by anthropocentric practices such as overfishing, pollution, eutrophication, translocation, climate change, and ocean acidification. Many jellyfish have unknown life cycles leading to these blooms. We describe for the first time, the life cycle of scyphozoan jellyfish Rhizostoma luteum from the planula to the young medusa stages, based on laboratory observations. We also provide a preliminary assessment of temperature related to life stages. Comparisons were made with early life history stages of its sibling species Rhizostoma pulmo and Rhizostoma octopus. The life cycle of R. luteum follows the general pattern of metagenesis of scyphozoans. Scyphistoma culture was maintained in filtered seawater at 17-17.5 °C, salinity 37 and light photoperiod (12:12 h light:dark). Scyphistomae were exposed to an experimental temperature descent for two days to test their survival capacity under severe winter conditions. Only one asexual reproduction mode was observed, which is employed for propagation, consisting of podocyst formation with excystment, subsequent development of scyphistoma, strobilation and liberation of viable ephyra. The development of the ephyra to metaephyra was photodocumented, reaching the metaephyra stage in approximately 21-25 days. Young medusae grow rapidly and maturity was reached after a 3-month post-liberation period with a mean bell diameter of 13.27 ± 2.26 cm and wet weight of 181.53 ± 53 g. The life cycle of R. luteum resembles that of its congeners, with the distinction that it has the unique features of being a brooding species (internal fertilisation with subsequent release of planulae) and under the conditions tested, the predominantly strobilation type observed was monodisc, and not polydisc as with the other two species in the genus Rhizostoma. As R. luteum shows sufficient requisite to form blooms if environmental circumstances change, it is important to understand its life cycle.

Author: Kienberger K; Riera-Buch M; Schönemann AM; Bartsch V; Halbauer R; Prieto L
Journal: PLoS One,2018;13(8):e0202093.
Publication type: Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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2. The Bright Side of Gelatinous Blooms: Nutraceutical Value and Antioxidant Properties of Three Mediterranean jellyfish (Scyphozoa)

Abstract:

Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo) in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation. A sequential enzymatic hydrolysis of jellyfish proteins was set up by pepsin and collagenase treatments of jellyfish samples after aqueous or hydroalcoholic protein extraction. The content and composition of proteins, amino acids, phenolics, and fatty acids of the three species were recorded and compared. Protein content (mainly represented by collagen) up to 40% of jellyfish dry weight were found in two of the three jellyfish species (C. tuberculata and R. pulmo), whereas the presence of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was significantly higher in the zooxanthellate jellyfish C. tuberculata only. Remarkable antioxidant ability was also recorded from both proteinaceous and non proteinaceous extracts and the hydrolyzed protein fractions in all the three species. The abundance of collagen, peptides and other bioactive molecules make these Mediterranean gelatinous biomasses a largely untapped source of natural compounds of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological interest.

Author: Leone A; Lecci RM; Durante M; Meli F; Piraino S
Journal: Mar Drugs,2015/7/29;13(8):4654-81.
Publication type: Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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3. The genome of the giant Nomura's jellyfish sheds light on the early evolution of active predation

Abstract:

BACKGROUND

Unique among cnidarians, jellyfish have remarkable morphological and biochemical innovations that allow them to actively hunt in the water column and were some of the first animals to become free-swimming. The class Scyphozoa, or true jellyfish, are characterized by a predominant medusa life-stage consisting of a bell and venomous tentacles used for hunting and defense, as well as using pulsed jet propulsion for mobility. Here, we present the genome of the giant Nomura's jellyfish (Nemopilema nomurai) to understand the genetic basis of these key innovations.

RESULTS

We sequenced the genome and transcriptomes of the bell and tentacles of the giant Nomura's jellyfish as well as transcriptomes across tissues and developmental stages of the Sanderia malayensis jellyfish. Analyses of the Nemopilema and other cnidarian genomes revealed adaptations associated with swimming, marked by codon bias in muscle contraction and expansion of neurotransmitter genes, along with expanded Myosin type II family and venom domains, possibly contributing to jellyfish mobility and active predation. We also identified gene family expansions of Wnt and posterior Hox genes and discovered the important role of retinoic acid signaling in this ancient lineage of metazoans, which together may be related to the unique jellyfish body plan (medusa formation).

CONCLUSIONS

Taken together, the Nemopilema jellyfish genome and transcriptomes genetically confirm their unique morphological and physiological traits, which may have contributed to the success of jellyfish as early multi-cellular predators.

Author: Kim HM; Weber JA; Lee N; Park SG; Cho YS; Bhak Y; Lee N; Jeon Y; Jeon S; Luria V
Journal: BMC Biol,2019/03/29;17(1):28.
Publication type: Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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4. A SLC6 transporter cloned from the lion's mane jellyfish (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) is expressed in neurons

Abstract:

In the course of recent comparative genomic studies conducted on nervous systems across the phylogeny, current thinking is leaning in favor of more heterogeneity among nervous systems than what was initially expected. The isolation and characterization of molecular components that constitute the cnidarian neuron is not only of interest to the physiologist but also, on a larger scale, to those who study the evolution of nervous systems. Understanding the function of those ancient neurons involves the identification of neurotransmitters and their precursors, the description of nutrients used by neurons for metabolic purposes and the identification of integral membrane proteins that bind to those compounds. Using a molecular cloning strategy targeting membrane proteins that are known to be present in all forms of life, we isolated a member of the solute carrier family 6 from the scyphozoan jellyfish Cyanea capillata. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that the new transporter sequence belongs to an ancestral group of the nutrient amino acid transporter subfamily and is part of a cluster of cnidarian sequences which may translocate the same substrate. We found that the jellyfish transporter is expressed in neurons of the motor nerve net of the animal. To this end, we established an in situ hybridization protocol for the tissues of C. capillata and developed a specific antibody to the jellyfish transporter. Finally, we showed that the gene that codes for the jellyfish transporter also expresses a long non-coding RNA. We hope that this research will contribute to studies that seek to understand what constitutes a neuron in species that belong to an ancient phylum.

Author: Bouchard C; Boudko DY; Jiang RHY
Journal: PLoS One,2019;14(6):e0218806.
Publication type: Journal Article
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5. Bacteria associated with moon jellyfish during bloom and post-bloom periods in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic)

Abstract:

Jellyfish are a prominent component of the plankton community. They frequently form conspicuous blooms which may interfere with different human enterprises. Among the aspects that remain understudied are jellyfish associations with microorganisms having potentially important implications for organic matter cycling. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the bacterial community associated with live moon jellyfish (Aurelia solida, Scyohozoa) in the Adriatic Sea. Using 16S rRNA clone libraries and culture-based methods, we have analyzed the bacterial community composition of different body parts: the exumbrella surface, oral arms, and gastric cavity, and investigated possible differences in medusa-associated bacterial community structure at the time of the jellyfish population peak, and during the senescent phase at the end of bloom. Microbiota associated with moon jellyfish was different from ambient seawater bacterial assemblage and varied between different body parts. Betaproteobacteria (Burkholderia, Cupriavidus and Achromobacter) dominated community in the gastral cavity of medusa, while Alphaproteobacteria (Phaeobacter, Ruegeria) and Gammaproteobacteria (Stenotrophomonas, Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio) prevailed on 'outer' body parts. Bacterial community structure changed during senescent phase, at the end of the jellyfish bloom, showing an increased abundance of Gammaproteobacteria, exclusively Vibrio. The results of cultured bacterial isolates showed the dominance of Gammaproeteobacteria, especially Vibrio and Pseudoalteromonas in all body parts. Our results suggest that jellyfish associated bacterial community might have an important role for the host, and that anthropogenic pollution in the Gulf of Trieste might affect their community structure.

Author: Kos Kramar M; Tinta T; Lučić D; Malej A; Turk V
Journal: PLoS One,2019;14(1):e0198056.
Publication type: Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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