Free full text lyme disease research literature

Here we have found the free full-text literature for lyme disease research.

1. Precision medicine: retrospective chart review and data analysis of 200 patients on dapsone combination therapy for chronic Lyme disease/post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome: part 1

Abstract:

Purpose

We collected data from an online survey of 200 of our patients, which evaluated the efficacy of dapsone (diaminodiphenyl sulfone, ie, DDS) combined with other antibiotics and agents that disrupt biofilms for the treatment of chronic Lyme disease/post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). We also collected aggregate data from direct retrospective chart review, including laboratory testing for Lyme, other infections, and associated tick-borne coinfections. This helped us to determine the frequency of exposure to other infections/coinfections among a cohort of chronically ill Lyme patients, evaluate the efficacy of newer "persister" drug regimens like DDS, and determine how other infections and tick-borne coinfections may be contributing to the burden of chronic illness leading to resistant symptomatology.

Patients and methods

A total of 200 adult patients recruited from a specialized Lyme disease medical practice had been ill for at least 1 year. We regularly monitored laboratory values and participants' symptom severity, and the patients completed the online symptom questionnaire both before beginning treatment and after 6 months on DDS combination therapy (DDS CT). Paired-samples t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank nonparametric test were performed on each of eight major Lyme symptoms, both before DDS CT and after 6 months of therapy.

Results

DDS CT statistically improved the eight major Lyme symptoms. We found multiple species of intracellular bacteria including rickettsia, Bartonella, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Tularemia, and Brucella contributing to the burden of illness and a high prevalence of Babesia complicating management with probable geographic spread of Babesia WA1/duncani to the Northeast. Borrelia, Bartonella, and Mycoplasma species, as well as Babesia microti had variable manifestations and diverse seroreactivity, with evidence of persistence despite commonly prescribed courses of anti-infective therapies. Occasional reactivation of viral infections including human herpes virus 6 was also seen in immunocompromised individuals.

Conclusion

DDS CT decreased eight major Lyme symptoms severity and improved treatment outcomes among patients with chronic Lyme disease/PTLDS and associated coinfections.

Author: Horowitz RI; Freeman PR
Journal: Int J Gen Med,2019;12:101-119.
Publication type: Journal Article
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2. Parenting When Children Have Lyme Disease: Fear, Frustration, Advocacy

Abstract:

Increasing numbers of Canadians, including children and adolescents, are being infected with Borrelia burgdorferi and contracting Lyme disease. In the present study, we provided a qualitative analysis of written correspondence produced by 23 parents of children and adolescents with Lyme disease. The goal of this study was to investigate how medical and psychological issues were highlighted by parents describing their family's Lyme disease experiences. The results suggest a series of four stages in these families where satisfactory treatment had not been obtained over months or years. The experiences of parents evolved from feelings of worry for the child to frustration with the lack of a helpful treatment, to mistrust of physicians' actions, and, in some case, to a rejection of the conventional health care system as a whole. Improved diagnostic testing and treatment guidelines, as well as family-centered practices of medical care were proposed as important features for improving the experiences of families living with Lyme disease.

Author: Gaudet EM; Gould ON; Lloyd V
Journal: Healthcare (Basel),2019/8/08;7(3)
Publication type: Journal Article
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3. Characteristics and patient pathways of Lyme disease patients: a retrospective analysis of hospital episode data in England and Wales (1998-2015)

Abstract:

BACKGROUND

Lyme disease is a tick-borne disease of increasing global importance. There is scant information on Lyme disease patient demographics in England and Wales, and how they interact with the National Health Service (NHS). Our aims were to explore the demographic characteristics of Lyme disease patients within the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and Patient Episode Database for Wales (PEDW), and to describe patient pathways.

METHODS

Data from 1st January 1998 to 31st December 2015 was retrieved from the two administrative hospital datasets (HES and PEDW), based on patients coded with Lyme disease. Information was collected on demographic characteristics, home address and case management. Incidence rates were calculated, and demographics compared to the national population.

RESULTS

Within HES and PEDW, 2361 patients were coded with Lyme disease. There was a significant increase (p < 0.01) in incidence from 0.08 cases/100,000 in 1998, to 0.53 cases/100,000 in 2015. There was a bimodal age distribution, patients were predominantly female, white and from areas of low deprivation. New cases peaked annually in August, with higher incidence rates in southern central and western England. Within hospital admission data (n = 2066), most cases were either referred from primary care (28.8%, n = 596) or admitted via accident and emergency (A&E) (29.5%, n = 610). This population entering secondary care through A&E suggest a poor understanding of the recommended care pathways for symptoms related to Lyme disease by the general population.

CONCLUSIONS

These data can be used to inform future investigations into Lyme disease burden, and patient management within the NHS. They provide demographic information for clinicians to target public health messaging or interventions.

Author: Tulloch JSP; Decraene V; Christley RM; Radford AD; Warner JC; Vivancos R
Journal: BMC Public Health,2019/8/15;19(1):931.
Publication type: Journal Article
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4. First case report of inducible heart block in Lyme disease and an update of Lymecarditis

Abstract:

BACKGROUND

Lyme disease (LD), is the most common vector-borne illness in the US and Europe, with predominantly cutaneous, articular, cardiac and neuro-psychiatric manifestations. LD affects all layers of the heart and every part of the conducting system. Carditis is a less common manifestation of LD. Heart block (HB) as the initial and sole manifestation of LD is rare. Inducible HB has never been reported in LD. We report a case of heart block (HB) inducible with exercise and reversible with rest.

CASE PRESENTATION

A 37-year-old male presented to the emergency department after experiencing two episodes of syncope while at work. He presented, with a heart rate of 57 bpm, and the ECG showed sinus bradycardia with first degree AV block. The PR interval was 480 ms (NL 120-200 ms). Physical exam was unremarkable. The cardiologist's initial impression was vaso-vagal attack. He developed high degree AV block during a stress test for the initial work up, which resolved on cessation of exercise. A similar episode while walking in the hallway, resolved at rest. The high degree AV block appeared inducible with exercise and reversible with rest. His Lyme serology was strongly positive. He was treated with ceftriaxone and doxycycline. After completing treatment, the patient had a normal ECG and returned to work without limitations, doing manual labor.

CONCLUSIONS

Manifestations of Lyme carditis (LC) vary from asymptomatic and symptomatic electrocardiographic changes and heart block (HB) reversible with treatment, to sudden death. HB as the sole and initial presentation of LC is rare. There have been no reports of inducible HB in LD. Here we present a case of inducible and reversible high degree HB in a case of LC and an update of literature. Exercise and stress testing should be avoided in suspected cases of LC until resolution of carditis. Lyme carditis should be suspected in individuals with cardiac manifestations in an endemic area, particularly in the younger patients with no other etiology evident.

Author: Kannangara DW; Sidra S; Pritiben P
Journal: BMC Infect Dis,2019/5/16;19(1):428.
Publication type: Case Reports; Journal Article
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5. Infectious Mononucleosis and Lyme Disease as Confounding Diagnoses: A Report of 2 Cases

Abstract:

Lyme disease and infectious mononucleosis are common illnesses that share similar clinical presentations. Significant cross-reactivity is known to occur between Lyme and EBV serologic assays complicating the diagnosis. To date, no prior cases of concurrent acute Lyme and EBV infections have been reported. We describe the clinical presentation of two children with confirmed early Lyme disease and features suggestive of infectious mononucleosis, including one case of probable Lyme and EBV co-infection.

Author: Koester TM; Meece JK; Fritsche TR; Frost HM
Journal: Clin Med Res,2018/12;16(3-4):66-68.
Publication type: Case Reports; Journal Article
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6. Lyme Neuroborreliosis

Abstract:

BACKGROUND

The new German S3 guideline on Lyme neuroborreliosis is intended to provide physicians with scientifically based information and recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

METHODS

The scientific literature was systematically searched and the retrieved publications were assessed at the German Cochrane Center (Deutsches Cochrane Zentrum) in Freiburg in the 12 months beginning in March 2014. In addition to the main search terms "Lyme disease," "neuroborreliosis," "Borrelia," and "Bannwarth," 28 further terms relating to neurological manifestations of the disease were used for the search in the Medline and Embase databases and in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials.

RESULTS

In the treatment of early Lyme neuroborreliosis, orally administered doxycycline is well tolerated, and its efficacy is equivalent to that of intravenously administered beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin G, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime) (relative risk [RR]: 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.68; 1.42], P = 0.93). 14 days of treatment suffice for early Lyme neuroborreliosis, and 14-21 days of treatment usually suffice for late (chronic) Lyme neuroborreliosis.

CONCLUSION

Lyme neuroborreliosis has a favorable prognosis if treated early. The long-term administration of antibiotics over many weeks or even months for putative chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis with nonspecific symptoms yields no additional benefit and carries the risk of serious adverse effects.

Author: Rauer S; Kastenbauer S; Fingerle V; Hunfeld KP; Huppertz HI; Dersch R
Journal: Dtsch Arztebl Int,2018/11/09;115(45):751-756.
Publication type: Journal Article
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7. Linear B Cell Epitopes Derived from the Multifunctional Surface Lipoprotein BBK32 as Targets for the Serodiagnosis of Lyme Disease

Abstract:

BBK32 is a multifunctional surface lipoprotein expressed by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Previous studies suggested that BBK32 could be a sensitive antigen target of new, more effective, serodiagnostic assays for the laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease. However, nonspecific antibody binding to full-length BBK32 has hampered its use as a target in clinical assays. Specificity can be improved by the use of peptides composed of linear B cell epitopes that are unique to B. burgdorferi, eliminating cross-reactive epitopes that bind to antibodies generated by non-B. burgdorferi antigens. In this study, we identified linear B cell epitopes in 2 regions, BBK32 amino acids 16 to 30 [BBK32(16-30)] and BBK32 amino acids 51 to 80 [BBK32(51-80)], by probing overlapping peptide libraries of BBK32 with serum from patients with early Lyme disease. We screened synthetic peptides containing these epitopes using a large panel of serum (n = 355) obtained from patients with erythema migrans lesions (early Lyme disease), Lyme arthritis, syphilis, rheumatoid arthritis, or healthy volunteers. BBK32(16-30) demonstrated a nearly universal antibody binding in serum from all patients, indicating that regions of BBK32 are highly cross-reactive. BBK32(51-80) was less cross-reactive, being able to distinguish serum from Lyme disease patients from control patient serum; however, an unacceptable level of antibody binding was still observed in control samples, resulting in a reduced specificity (94.7%). These results indicate that BBK32 contains cross-reactive epitopes that make it a poor antigen target for inclusion in a serodiagnostic assay for Lyme disease and highlight the difficulties in identifying highly sensitive and specific seroassay targets.IMPORTANCE Lyme disease is an infectious disease that has the potential to cause significant morbidity with damage to nervous and musculoskeletal systems if left untreated. Appropriate antibiotic treatment during early infection prevents disease progression. Unfortunately, currently available diagnostics are suboptimal in the detection of early disease. The inability to confirm Borrelia infection using laboratory methods during early disease is, in part, responsible for much of the controversy surrounding Lyme disease today. As a result, there has been significant investment in the identification of new antigen targets to generate diagnostic assays that are more sensitive for the detection of early infection. The importance of our research is that in our evaluation of BBK32, an antigen that was previously identified as a promising target for use in serodiagnostics, we found a high degree of cross-reactivity that could compromise the specificity of assays that utilize this antigen, leading to false-positive diagnoses.

Author: Toumanios C; Prisco L; Dattwyler RJ; Arnaboldi PM
Journal: mSphere,2019/05/01;4(3)
Publication type: Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
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8. A Next-Generation Sequencing-Based Molecular Approach to Characterize a Tick Vector in Lyme Disease

Abstract:

Next-generation sequencing approaches have revolutionized genomic medicine and enabled rapid diagnosis for several diseases. These approaches are widely used for pathogen detection in several infectious diseases. Lyme disease is a tick-borne infectious disease, which affects multiple organs. The causative organism is a spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by ticks. Lyme disease can be treated easily if detected early, but its diagnosis is often delayed or is incorrect leading to a chronic debilitating condition. Current confirmatory diagnostic tests for Lyme disease rely on detection of antigens derived from B. burgdorferi, which are prone to both false positives and false negatives. Instead of focusing only on the human host for the diagnosis of Lyme disease, one could also attempt to identify the vector (tick) and the causative organism carried by the tick. Since all ticks do not transmit Lyme disease, it can be informative to accurately identify the tick from the site of bite, which is often observed by the patient and discarded. However, identifying ticks based on morphology alone requires a trained operator and can still be incorrect. Thus, we decided to take a molecular approach by sequencing DNA and RNA from a tick collected from an individual bitten by the tick. Using next-generation sequencing, we confirmed the identity of the tick as a dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, and did not identify any pathogenic bacterial sequences, including Borrelia species. Despite the limited availability of nucleotide sequences for many types of ticks, our approach correctly identified the tick species. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates the potential of next-generation sequencing in the diagnosis of tick-borne infections, which can also be extended to other zoonotic diseases.

Author: Madugundu AK; Muthusamy B; Sreenivasamurthy SK; Bhavani C; Sharma J; Kumar B; Murthy KR; Ravikumar R; Pandey A
Journal: OMICS,2018/08;22(8):565-574.
Publication type: Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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9. Obstacles to diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease in the USA: a qualitative study

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE

For many individuals with Lyme disease, prompt treatment leads to rapid resolution of infection. However, severe complications can occur if treatment is delayed. Our objective was to identify themes around belated diagnosis or treatment of Lyme disease using the General Model of Total Patient Delay (GMTPD).

DESIGN

We conducted a qualitative interview study using indepth telephone interviews.

SETTING

Participants were patients from a large, integrated health system in the state of Pennsylvania, USA.

PARTICIPANTS

There were 26 participants. Participants had to have a diagnosis of Lyme disease between 2014 and 2017 and a positive IgG western blot. We used a stratified purposeful sampling design to identify patients with and without late Lyme disease manifestations. To ensure variation in care experiences, we oversampled patients diagnosed outside of primary care.

Author: Hirsch AG; Herman RJ; Rebman A; Moon KA; Aucott J; Heaney C; Schwartz BS
Journal: BMJ Open,2018/6/11;8(6):e021367.
Publication type: Journal Article
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10. Persistent Borrelia Infection in Patients with Ongoing Symptoms of Lyme Disease

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION

Lyme disease is a tickborne illness that generates controversy among medical providers and researchers. One of the key topics of debate is the existence of persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borreliaburgdorferi, in patients who have been treated with recommended doses of antibiotics yet remain symptomatic. Persistent spirochetal infection despite antibiotic therapy has recently been demonstrated in non-human primates. We present evidence of persistent Borrelia infection despite antibiotic therapy in patients with ongoing Lyme disease symptoms.

METHODS

In this pilot study, culture of body fluids and tissues was performed in a randomly selected group of 12 patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms who had been treated or who were being treated with antibiotics. Cultures were also performed on a group of ten control subjects without Lyme disease. The cultures were subjected to corroborative microscopic, histopathological and molecular testing for Borrelia organisms in four independent laboratories in a blinded manner.

RESULTS

Motile spirochetes identified histopathologically as Borrelia were detected in culture specimens, and these spirochetes were genetically identified as Borreliaburgdorferi by three distinct polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches. Spirochetes identified as Borrelia burgdorferi were cultured from the blood of seven subjects, from the genital secretions of ten subjects, and from a skin lesion of one subject. Cultures from control subjects without Lyme disease were negative for Borrelia using these methods.

CONCLUSIONS

Using multiple corroborative detection methods, we showed that patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms may have ongoing spirochetal infection despite antibiotic treatment, similar to findings in non-human primates. The optimal treatment for persistent Borrelia infection remains to be determined.

Author: Middelveen MJ; Sapi E; Burke J; Filush KR; Franco A; Fesler MC; Stricker RB
Journal: Healthcare (Basel),2018/4/14;6(2)
Publication type: Journal Article
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11. Potential role of deer tick virus in Powassan encephalitis cases in Lyme disease-endemic areas of New York, U.S.A

Abstract:

Powassan virus, a member of the tick-borne encephalitis group of flaviviruses, encompasses 2 lineages with separate enzootic cycles. The prototype lineage of Powassan virus (POWV) is principally maintained between Ixodes cookei ticks and the groundhog (Marmota momax) or striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), whereas the deer tick virus (DTV) lineage is believed to be maintained between Ixodes scapularis ticks and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). We report 14 cases of Powassan encephalitis from New York during 2004-2012. Ten (72%) of the patients were residents of the Lower Hudson Valley, a Lyme disease-endemic area in which I. scapularis ticks account for most human tick bites. This finding suggests that many of these cases were caused by DTV rather than POWV. In 2 patients, DTV infection was confirmed by genetic sequencing. As molecular testing becomes increasingly available, more cases of Powassan encephalitis may be determined to be attributable to the DTV lineage.

Author: El Khoury MY; Camargo JF; White JL; Backenson BP; Dupuis AP 2nd; Escuyer KL; Kramer L; St George K; Chatterjee D; Prusinski M; Wormser GP; Wong SJ
Journal: Emerg Infect Dis,2013/12;19(12):1926-33.
Publication type: Journal Article
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12. Metabolic differentiation of early Lyme disease from southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI)

Abstract:

Lyme disease, the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States, results from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Early clinical diagnosis of this disease is largely based on the presence of an erythematous skin lesion for individuals in high-risk regions. This, however, can be confused with other illnesses including southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), an illness that lacks a defined etiological agent or laboratory diagnostic test, and is coprevalent with Lyme disease in portions of the eastern United States. By applying an unbiased metabolomics approach with sera retrospectively obtained from well-characterized patients, we defined biochemical and diagnostic differences between early Lyme disease and STARI. Specifically, a metabolic biosignature consisting of 261 molecular features (MFs) revealed that altered N-acyl ethanolamine and primary fatty acid amide metabolism discriminated early Lyme disease from STARI. Development of classification models with the 261-MF biosignature and testing against validation samples differentiated early Lyme disease from STARI with an accuracy of 85 to 98%. These findings revealed metabolic dissimilarity between early Lyme disease and STARI, and provide a powerful and new approach to inform patient management by objectively distinguishing early Lyme disease from an illness with nearly identical symptoms.

Author: Molins CR; Ashton LV; Wormser GP; Andre BG; Hess AM; Delorey MJ; Pilgard MA; Johnson BJ; Webb K; Islam MN; Pegalajar-Jurado A; Molla I; Jewett MW; Belisle JT
Journal: Sci Transl Med,2017/8/16;9(403)
Publication type: Journal Article
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13. ACVIM consensus update on Lyme borreliosis in dogs and cats

Abstract:

An update of the 2006 American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) Small Animal Consensus Statement on Lyme Disease in Dogs: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention was presented at the 2016 ACVIM Forum in Denver, CO, followed by panel and audience discussion and a drafted consensus statement distributed online to diplomates for comment. The updated consensus statement is presented below. The consensus statement aims to provide guidance on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme borreliosis in dogs and cats.

Author: Littman MP; Gerber B; Goldstein RE; Labato MA; Lappin MR; Moore GE
Journal: J Vet Intern Med,2018/5;32(3):887-903.
Publication type: Consensus Development Conference; Journal Article
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14. Borrelia burgdorferi Infection and Lyme Disease in North American Horses: A Consensus Statement

Abstract:

Borrelia burgdorferi infection is common in horses living in Lyme endemic areas and the geographic range for exposure is increasing. Morbidity after B. burgdorferi infection in horses is unknown. Documented, naturally occurring syndromes attributed to B. burgdorferi infection in horses include neuroborreliosis, uveitis, and cutaneous pseudolymphoma. Although other clinical signs such as lameness and stiffness are reported in horses, these are often not well documented. Diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on exposure to B. burgdorferi, cytology or histopathology of infected fluid or tissue and antigen detection. Treatment of Lyme disease in horses is similar to treatment of humans or small animals but treatment success might not be the same because of species differences in antimicrobial bioavailability and duration of infection before initiation of treatment. There are no approved equine label Lyme vaccines but there is strong evidence that proper vaccination could prevent infection in horses.

Author: Divers TJ; Gardner RB; Madigan JE; Witonsky SG; Bertone JJ; Swinebroad EL; Schutzer SE; Johnson AL
Journal: J Vet Intern Med,2018/3;32(2):617-632.
Publication type: Journal Article
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15. Lyme disease and pregnancy

Abstract:

Lyme disease is the most commonly transmitted vector-borne disease in the United States, with many regions of the country at risk. Like other spirochete-borne infections, Lyme disease progresses in stages, making diagnosis in the early stages of the illness and prompt treatment important for cure. An early diagnosis is made difficult by the less-than-ideal serologic tests and the varied clinical presentations of the disease. Although Lyme disease has been reported in pregnancy, the transmission rate to the fetus and potential harmful effects are largely unknown. This review discusses the diagnosis, clinical course, and treatment of Lyme disease with an emphasis on the pregnant patient.

Author: Alexander JM; Cox SM
Journal: Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol,1995;3(6):256-61.
Publication type: Journal Article
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