Free full text enterobacteriaceae research literature in 2019

Here we have found the free full-text enterobacteriaceae research literature in 2019.

1. A Cohort Study of the Impact of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections on Mortality of Patients Presenting with Sepsis

Abstract

Free full text enterobacteriaceae research literature

The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infection on sepsis 30-day mortality. A retrospective cohort of patients >18 years old with sepsis and organ dysfunction or septic shock was conducted. Univariate analysis was done for variables potentially related to 30-day mortality, and the ones with P values of <0.05 were included in a backward stepwise hierarchic Cox regression model. Variables that remained with P values of <0.05 were retained in the model. A total of 1,190 sepsis episodes were analyzed. Gram-negative bacterial infections occurred in 391 (68.5%) of 571 patients with positive cultures, of which 69 (17.7%) were caused by a CRE organism. Patients with CRE infections had significantly higher 30-day mortality: 63.8% versus 33.4% (P < 0.01). CRE infection was also associated with a lower rate of appropriate empirical therapy (P < 0.01) and with the presence of septic shock (P < 0.01). In the hierarchic multivariate model, CRE remained significant when controlling for demographic variables, comorbidities, and infection site but lost significance when controlling for septic shock and appropriate empirical therapy. Older age (P < 0.01), HIV-positive status (P < 0.01), cirrhosis (P < 0.01), septic shock (P < 0.01), higher quick sepsis-related organ failure assessment (quick-SOFA) (P < 0.01), and appropriate empirical therapy (P = 0.01) remained in the final model. CRE infections were associated with higher crude mortality rates. A lower rate of appropriate empirical therapy and late diagnosis were more frequent in this group, and improvement of stewardship programs is needed.IMPORTANCE The importance of this work relies on exploring the impact of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections such as those with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) on sepsis mortality. These infections are growing at alarming rates worldwide and are now among the most frequent and difficult-to-treat bacteria due to the very few options for susceptible antimicrobials available. This study examined 1,190 sepsis episodes, and the main findings were as follows: (i) the prevalence of CRE infections significantly increased over time, (ii) CRE infection was associated with higher 30-day mortality than that of patients with other infections (63.8% versus 33.4%), and (iii) the effect of CRE on mortality was probably influenced by the fact that those patients received lower rates of empirical therapy with active antibiotics and were also diagnosed in more advanced stages of sepsis (septic shock). Those findings point to the need for rapid diagnostic methods to identify these bacteria and the need to adjust therapeutic guidelines to this worrisome epidemiological scenario.

Author: Sabino S; Soares S; Ramos F; Moretti M; Zavascki AP; Rigatto MH
Journal: mSphere,2019/04/10;4(2)
Publication type: Journal Article
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2. Composition of the intestinal microbiota in extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae carriers and non-carriers in Thailand

Abstract

There is increasing recognition that the intestinal microbiota govern human well-being and prevent diseases. Intestinal colonization by antibiotic-resistant pathogens, however, can lead to the spread of resistance as well as serious infections. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) represent particularly dangerous pathogens, which are known to asymptomatically colonize the intestinal tract in the community. Here, we performed a 16S rRNA metagenomics sequence analysis to analyse differences in the microbiota composition between ESBL-E carriers and non-carriers in Thailand, where ESBL-E carriage rates are notoriously high. The most notable difference detected was that the phylum Bacteroidetes, and in particular, the species Bacteroides uniformis, were significantly more abundant in ESBL-E non-carriers than carriers. The Shannon diversity index in non-carriers (5.10 ± 0.69) was also lower than that in ESBL-E carriers (5.39 ± 0.48) without statistical significance (P=0.13). The overall beta diversity difference of the intestinal microbiota of ESBL-E carriers as compared to non-carriers was statistically significant (Adonis on weighted unifrac: R2=0.14, P=0.005). Furthermore, ESBL-E carriage was significantly lower in farmers than in those with other occupations. Our findings suggest that a dynamic interaction exists between microbiota diversity and ESBL-E carriage, which is possibly driven by dietary composition and may be exploited using probiotic approaches to control the spread of ESBL-E.

Author: Piewngam P; Quiñones M; Thirakittiwatthana W; Yungyuen T; Otto M; Kiratisin P
Journal: Int J Antimicrob Agents,2019/4;53(4):435-441.
Publication type: Journal Article
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3. High prevalence and characterization of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase producingEnterobacteriaceae in Chadian hospitals

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) represent a major problem in the management of nosocomial infections. However, ESBL-PE are not systematically monitored in African countries. The aim of this study was to determine ESBL-PE prevalence in patients from three hospitals in N'Djamena, the capital city of Chad, and to characterize the genetic origin of the observed resistance.

METHODS

From January to March 2017, 313 non-duplicate isolates were recovered from various clinical specimens obtained from 1713 patients in the three main hospitals of N'Djamena. Bacterial species were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Susceptibility to 28 antibiotics was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar, and ESBL production was confirmed with the double-disc synergy test. The most prevalent ESBL genes associated with the observed resistance were detected using multiplex PCR followed by double-stranded DNA sequencing.

RESULTS

Among the 313 isolates, 197 belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae family. The overall ESBL-PE prevalence was 47.72% (n = 94/197), with a higher rate among inpatients compared with outpatients (54.13% vs. 34.37%). ESBL-PE prevalence was highest in older patients (≥60 years of age). E. coli was the most common ESBL-producer organism (63.8%), followed by K. pneumoniae (21.2%). ESBL-PE were mainly found in urine samples (75%). The CTX-M-1 group was dominant (96.7% of the 94 ESBL-PE isolates, CTX-M-15 enzyme), followed by the CTX-M-9 group (4.1%). 86% of resistant isolates harbored more than one ESBL-encoding gene. ESBL production was also associated with the highest levels of resistance to non-β-lactam drugs.

CONCLUSIONS

The prevalence of ESBL-PE harboring resistant genes encoding ESBLs of the CTX-M-1 group was high (48%) among clinical isolates of three main hospitals in Chad, suggesting an alarming spread of ESBL-PE among patients.

Author: Ouchar Mahamat O; Lounnas M; Hide M; Dumont Y; Tidjani A; Kamougam K; Abderrahmane M; Benavides J; Solassol J; Bañuls AL; Jean-Pierre H; Carrière C; Godreuil S
Journal: BMC Infect Dis,2019/2/28;19(1):205.
Publication type: Journal Article
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4. The role of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistance in recurrent community-onset Enterobacteriaceae urinary tract infections: a retrospective cohort study

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Bacterial resistance to first line antibiotics used to treat community-onset urinary tract infections (UTIs) continues to emerge. We sought to determine the association between extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance (ESC-R) and recurrence among Enterobacteriaceae (EB) UTIs.

METHODS

A retrospective cohort study was performed. All patients presenting to the Emergency Departments (EDs) or outpatient practices in a large health system with EB UTIs between 2010 and 2013 were included. Exposed patients had ESC-R EB UTIs. Unexposed patients had ESC-susceptible EB UTIs and were matched to exposed patients 1:1 on study year. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between ESC-R EB UTI and time to recurrent UTI within 12 months.

RESULTS

A total of 302 patients with an index community-onset EB UTI were included, with 151 exposed and 151 unexposed. Overall, 163 (54%) patients experienced a recurrent UTI with a median time to recurrence of 69 days (interquartile range 25-183). On multivariable analyses, ESC-resistance was associated with an increased hazard of recurrent UTI (hazard ratio [HR] 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.91, P = 0.04). Other variables that were independently associated with recurrence included a history of UTI prior to the index UTI and presence of a urinary catheter at the time of the index UTI. Secondarily, we found that when the treatment for the index UTI was adjusted for, there was no longer a significant association between ESC-R status and time to recurrent UTI (aHR 1.26, 95% CI 0.91-1.76, P = 0.17).

CONCLUSIONS

Community-onset UTI due to EB demonstrating ESC-resistance is associated with a significantly increased hazard of recurrent UTI within 12 months compared to ESC-susceptible EB, even after adjusting for baseline factors that predispose patients to UTI recurrence. This association appears to be driven primarily by delayed or inappropriate treatment for the index ESC-R EB UTI.

Author: Anesi JA; Lautenbach E; Nachamkin I; Garrigan C; Bilker WB; Omorogbe J; Dankwa L; Wheeler M; Tolomeo P; Han JH; CDC Prevention Epicenters Program
Journal: BMC Infect Dis,2019/2/14;19(1):163.
Publication type: Journal Article
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5. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae Acquisition in an Emergency Intensive Care Unit in a Tertiary Hospital in Korea: a Case-Control Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are associated with high mortality rates and their treatment is difficult because treatment is limited to certain antibiotics, such as colistin and tigecycline. We aimed to perform active surveillance culture of CRE (ASC-CRE) to monitor the prevalence of CRE acquisition during intensive care unit (ICU) care and to examine the potential risk factors associated with CRE acquisition.

METHODS

We conducted ASC-CRE on patients who were admitted to the ICU in the emergency room at a tertiary hospital. Rectal swabs were analyzed using methods established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To detect carbapenemase-producing CRE, a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect five carbapenemase genes (blaNDM, blaKPC, blaVIM, blaIMP-1, and blaOXA-48) was performed.

RESULTS

There were 22 CRE acquisition in 21 patients (2.6%, 21/810) and the incidence of CRE acquisition was 4.3/1,000 person-days, respectively. The most common species detected was Klebsiella pneumoniae (72.7%, 16/22), and 9 carbapenemase-producing CREs (7 blaKPC and 2 blaNDM) were detected. Independent risk factors associated with CRE acquisition were men gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-21.3), history of admission within one year (aOR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-12.1), co-colonization with multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (aOR, 15.6; 95% CI, 3.6-67.8) and extended-spectrum β-lactamases-producing bacteria (aOR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.5-14.6), and exposure to glycopeptide antibiotics (aOR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3-9.9).

CONCLUSION

The identification of patients with risk factors for CRE acquisition and early detection of CRE acquisition using ASC-CRE may be useful for CRE control.

Author: Kang JS; Yi J; Ko MK; Lee SO; Lee JE; Kim KH
Journal: J Korean Med Sci,2019/5/13;34(18):e140.
Publication type: Journal Article
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6. Activity of Ceftolozane/Tazobactam Against Gram-Negative Rods of the FamilyEnterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas Spp. Isolated from Onco-Hematological Patients Hospitalized in a Clinical Hospital in Pola...

Abstract

BACKGROUND The most common etiological agents of infections in onco-hematological patients are Gram-negative rods resistant to many antimicrobials, including carbapenems. Recently, ceftolozane combined with tazobactam became a novel therapeutic option. The aim of the present study was to analyze the susceptibility to ceftolozane/tazobactam of the clinical strains of these bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS Material comprised rectal swabs, urine, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from onco-hematological patients hospitalized in a clinical hospital (1050 beds) in Poland. Identification of the isolated bacteria was done by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using the MALDI Biotyper (Bruker). Ceftolozane/tazobactam susceptibility of the isolates was assessed using antimicrobial gradient strips (E-test, BioMérieux). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation of the results was done according to the current recommendations of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). RESULTS In total, 281 rectal swabs and 116 urine samples were tested for the presence of Gram-negative rods producing ESBL, and 531 rectal swabs and 8 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were tested for the presence of Gram-negative rods resistant to carbapenems. In the analyzed period, 69 non-repetitive strains of bacteria were isolated that were in the spectrum of activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam. Among 44 clinical strains of ESBL(+) Enterobacteriaceae rods, 76% were susceptible to ceftolozane/tazobactam. All 9 strains of non-carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa resistant or with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems were susceptible to ceftolozane/tazobactam. CONCLUSIONS Ceftolozane/tazobactam may be an option in the therapy of infections caused by ESBL(+) strains of Enterobacteriaceae as well as non-carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa.

Author: Saran O; Sulik-Tyszka B; Basak GW; Wróblewska MM
Journal: Med Sci Monit,2019/1/10;25:305-311.
Publication type: Journal Article
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