The cause of obesity is comprehensive. The intestine is the main place for the digestion and absorption of human food. To find the cause of obesity, we could start from the intestines. The intestines are a complex ecosystem. The digestion of food is not only the body's own things, but also large-scale micro-organisms participate in this work.
Obesity is a popular science topic. On the one hand, this is an era of "slimness is beautiful". On the other hand, the improvement of living standards has a sufficient material basis for the accumulation of fat. After all, we don't have to worry about "can you eat enough?", but you can think "where the food is better?".
Changes in dietary structure caused by social progress are the initial causes of increased obesity. From this perspective, obesity is a happy annoyance. In June 2013, the American Medical Association listed obesity as a disease. One night, one in three Americans was ill.
The argument that "obesity is a disease" still has objections, but at the very least, obesity is the "heart disease" of a lot of beauty and healthy people. In order to lose weight, some people say goodbye to breakfast or dinner. There are a lot of running figures on the streets of the city. The weight-loss drugs in TV shopping are not tired… However, no matter how hard, many people are still defeated on their way of losing weight. In stark contrast to this, there is another kind of person in the world who "never be fat however they eat, and eating is simply wasting food", making fat people embarrassed.
Obese clues of "intestinal flora"
In recent years, research on intestinal microorganisms has found that there are more than 1000 kinds of microbes in the human intestinal tract, and the number reaches an astonishing 100 trillion, which is 10 times of human cells. The number of genes of microbes, as many as 3.3 million, is 150 times of the human body genes. Such a large-scale microbial cluster is in the intestines, bringing scientists unlimited associations.
In 2012, Professor Zhao Liping from Shanghai Jiaotong University discovered a bacteria that may cause obesity, Enterobacter cloacae. Zhao Liping's team found that Enterobacter cloacae is widely found in the intestines of morbidly obese people. Subsequently, Zhao Liping team found a group of mice that "never be fat however they eat, and eating is simply wasting food", injecting Enterobacter cloacae into their intestines, and then feeding them nutritious food every day, and finally the mice had changed into big fat ones.
Zhao Liping's team conducted another study to allow an obese human patient to adhere to "whole grains, traditional Chinese nutritious health foods and probiotic foods" every day. After 9 weeks, the patient's weight lost more than 30 kilograms, more importantly, the Enterobacter cloacae present in the body is reduced to an "undetectable" level. These evidences suggest that Enterobacter cloacae "may have promoted the formation of obesity in humans." This is the first human intestinal bacteria found in the world that can cause obesity.
In 2015, Professor Zhao Liping, who has been in the field of intestinal microbiology for 25 years, found clues on the gut microbiological level for "Little Fat Willy Syndrome". "Little Fat Willy Syndrome" sounds cute, but it is a very serious genetic obesity in children. The child has persistent hunger and binge eating disorder who never can eat enough. When is 3 years old, the child’ weight reaches 88 pounds or more, causing various complications and life-threatening.
Zhao Liping's team discovered the characteristics of intestinal flora imbalance in children through second-generation sequencing technology. Similar to the previous study, Zhao Liping's team provided the child with "whole grain, traditional Chinese nutritious health food and probiotic food" and found that the child's hunger was alleviated and binge eating disorder was well controlled. Sequencing again revealed a positive change in the intestinal flora of the child, and the number of bifidobacteria (a probiotic, known as the human health barometer) increased significantly. This study again shows that changes in the intestinal flora are one of the important factors in obesity.
After proving that the intestinal flora is related to human obesity, the probiotics come in front of people's eyes, and they played a role as a "fat savior". Intestinal probiotics are a class of active microorganisms that colonize the human gut and produce definite health benefits that improve the balance of the host's micro-ecology and play a beneficial role, such as the common lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria.
In the guts of the human body, there are two small but powerful forces, one is the probiotic camp composed of probiotics, and the other is the "evil" camp composed of harmful bacteria. The two camps have been in the intestines for years, and their numbers are changing dynamically. Many diseases of the human body, such as type 2 diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, colorectal cancer, and obesity, have been proven to be related to the changes of intestinal flora structure. Specific to human obesity, in addition to inhibiting the growth of the evil obesity genus such as Enterobacter cloacae, probiotics can also interact with the intestines, regulate the metabolism of the human body in a positive direction, and affect the accumulation of fat from multiple dimensions. ".
For example, the study found that probiotics can regulate the release of gut hormones, thereby participating in the balance of blood glucose homeostasis, and reducing weight; In another example, probiotics can establish a membrane barrier with the intestines to prevent some harmful substances from entering the bloodstream. Conversely, when the number of probiotics is reduced, the structure of the intestinal flora changes, the permeability of the intestine increases, and a large amount of endotoxin enters the bloodstream, which causes chronic inflammation in the human body and eventually leads to obesity. Other studies have found that taking probiotics will increase the feeling of fullness after a meal to have less food, and to a certain extent, the purpose of weight control is achieved.
With so much scientific evidence, many fat people are tempted, and want to catch a bottle of probiotic to mouth. In addition to probiotics, there is a concept that is often mentioned as "prebiotics". Prebiotics can be understood as foods for probiotics that stimulate probiotics to proliferate in the intestines. The intestinal flora is a very complex micro-ecological system. Each person's gut flora is different and personalized. It is necessary to adjust its structure and make it develop in a direction that is conducive to weight loss. Professor Zhao Liping mentioned above was once a fat man. When he explored the relationship between obesity and intestinal flora, he did not forget to practice on himself. He successfully lost more than 40 kilograms of body weight through a dietary intervention program.
The gut microbiome research is a very new field, but its significant impact on human health has aroused the full attention of the scientific community.
I believe that there will always be a good news from the front of the science. Your obesity, most likely, is a game between the gut microbiota.