What is gut microbiota?
The human intestinal microbiota is the collective name of all microorganisms that live in our gut. The developing infant gut microbiota (IGM) is highly dynamic and prone to disruption by external factors.
The source of infant gut microbiota:
Early colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract is crucial for the overall health of the infant. Microbes colonize the neonatal gut immediately following birth, and the establishment and maintenance of non-pathogenic intestinal microbiota may reduce several neonatal inflammatory conditions. Much effort has therefore been devoted to the manipulation of the composition of the microbiota:
1) For infants of natural childbirth, the initial colonizations are mainly from their mother 's stool, vagina or skin
2) For infants of caesarean, the initial colonizations are derived from the surrounding environment such as the surgical environment, medical equipment or the hands of the nursing staff
3) The role of early infant nutrition, particularly breast milk, and supplementation of infant formula with prebiotics that positively influence the enteric microbiota by selectively promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria
4) Oral administration of probiotic bacteria which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host
A new research shows that breastfeeding duration in early life and pre-school dietary lifestyle correlated with the composition and functional competences of the gut microbiota in the children at school age. Metagenomic sequencing data for all 281 children samples in this study have been deposited in the China Nucleotide Sequence Archive (CNSA): CNP0000037 - KOALA cohort metagenome study.
As a lot of research shows that intestinal bacteria also play a role in children diarrhea, asthma, and overweight.
The Gut Microbiome's Role in diarrhea
Diarrhea is when stools (bowel movements) are loose and watery. Diarrhea is a common problem. It may last 1 or 2 days and go away on its own.
The Gut Microbiome's Role in asthma
Susan Lynch and Kei E. Fujimura of the University of California San Francisco present the latest research in mice exploring this relationship, especially how specific types of bacteria alter the presence of different immune cells. Though still an emerging body of work, they believe it is evidence that manipulation of the airway/gut microbiome at an early age could lead to new strategies to prevent or manage asthma.
The Gut Microbiome's Role in obesity
"Our study provides more evidence that the gut microbiota might be playing a role in later obesity," said lead author Maggie Stanislawski, PhD, who is a research associate at the LEAD Center, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado. "If our findings can be confirmed by other studies, the gut microbiota might play an important part of the obesity prediction algorithm, to identify at-risk kids early in life, before they start to gain any excess weight that might put them at risk for later obesity."
Even more, some research showed that the microbial composition of the human gut at 1 year of age predicts cognitive performance at 2 years of age, particularly in the area of communicative behavior.
The following is a result from one of the latest research, metagenomic sequencing data for all 281 children samples in this study have been deposited in the China Nucleotide Sequence Archive (CNSA): CNP0000037.